kwant.physics.
magnetic_gauge
(syst)[source]¶Fix the magnetic gauge for a finalized system.
This can be used to later calculate the Peierls phases that should be applied to each hopping, given a magnetic field.
This API is currently provisional. Refer to the documentation for details.
Examples
The following illustrates basic usage for a scattering region with a single lead attached:
>>> import numpy as np
>>> import kwant
>>>
>>> def hopping(a, b, t, peierls):
>>> return -t * peierls(a, b)
>>>
>>> syst = make_system(hopping)
>>> lead = make_lead(hopping)
>>> lead = lead.substituted(peierls='peierls_lead')
>>> syst.attach_lead(lead)
>>> syst = syst.finalized()
>>>
>>> gauge = kwant.physics.magnetic_gauge(syst)
>>>
>>> def B_syst(pos):
>>> return np.exp(-np.sum(pos * pos))
>>>
>>> peierls_syst, peierls_lead = gauge(B_syst, 0)
>>>
>>> params = dict(t=1, peierls=peierls_syst, peierls_lead=peierls_lead)
>>> kwant.hamiltonian_submatrix(syst, params=params)
Methods
__call__
(syst_field, *lead_fields, tol=1e-08, average=False)[source]¶Return the Peierls phase for a magnetic field configuration.
The magnetic field to apply to the scattering region. If callable, takes a position and returns the magnetic field at that position. Can be a scalar if the system is 1D or 2D, otherwise must be a vector. Magnetic field is expressed in units \(φ₀ / l²\), where \(φ₀\) is the magnetic flux quantum and \(l\) is the unit of length.
The magnetic fields to apply to each of the leads, in the same format as ‘syst_field’. In addition, if a callable is provided, then the magnetic field must have the symmetry of the associated lead.
The tolerance to which to calculate the flux through each hopping loop in the system.
If True, estimate the magnetic flux through each hopping loop
in the system by evaluating the magnetic field at a single
position inside the loop and multiplying it by the area of the
loop. If False, then scipy.integrate.quad
is used to integrate
the magnetic field. This parameter is only used when ‘syst_field’
or ‘lead_fields’ are callable.
The first callable computes the Peierls phase in the scattering
region and the remaining callables compute the Peierls phases
in each of the leads. Each callable takes a pair of
Site
(a hopping) and returns a unit complex
number (Peierls phase) that multiplies that hopping.